A cutter refers back to the type of excavator head similar to a basket cutterhead or bucketwheel on a hydraulic pipeline dredge. The cutter houses the suction intake and is used for reducing or agitating the materials which might be being dredged.
Cutters have two primary functions:
Loosen and break up materials from the bottom of a waterway into smaller fragments that are suitable with the dredge’s pumping system.
Intro the crumbled particles into the high-velocity stream on the suction intake in a prescribed capacity the place the supplies will be then pumped and transported through a dredge’s hydraulic pipeline system.
Specialised types of dredger are often of small measurement and output. They embody easy jet-lift and air-lift, auger suction, pneumatic and amphibious dredgers.
Jet-lift dredgers use the Venturi effect of a concentrated high-speed stream of water to draw the adjacent water, together with bed materials, right into a delivery pipe. The jet head has no moving parts so blockage by wires and other dock particles is minimised. These dredgers are comparatively small units and some will be manoeuvred on spuds alone.
Air-lift dredgers are very similar to the jet-lift dredgers but the medium for inducing water and material flow is high pressure air injected at the mouth of the suction pipe. As with jet-lift dredgers there are no moving parts within the flow system. Hard or different troublesome to loosen supplies cannot be dredged.
Augur suction dredgers operate on the identical principles as a cutter suction dredger, except that the mechanical cutting device is a rotating Archimedean screw placed at proper angles to the suction pipe. The screw dislodges materials, which is fed to the centrally placed suction pipe. Most units have a shroud over the reducing screw which reduces the spread of the plume of disturbed bed material which usually escapes from all dredgers. The augur suction dredger advances into the chopping face by hauling itself along a wire deployed directly ahead. Very accurate horizontal and vertical dimensions may be achieved.
Pneumatic dredgers work on the ‘evacuator’ principle. A chamber with inlets for bed materials is pumped out with the inlets closed. The inlets are then opened and water and materials drawn in. The combination is then pumped out and the cycle repeated. The unit is generally suspended from a crane on land or from a small pontoon or barge. The dredging motion is intermittent and suitable only for simply flowing material.
Amphibious dredgers have the bizarre characteristic of being able to work afloat or elevated clear of the water surface on legs. They are often outfitted with grabs, buckets or a shovel installation.
All of the above specialist types of dredger (and others) have been developed for particular situations and usually for small scale work such as slim canals, industrial lagoons and reservoirs. Some types have been developed to deal with contaminated sediments with minimum disturbance. They don’t seem to be normally employed for big scale upkeep or capital dredging work.
A further type of dredger is the plough or bed leveller. This consists of a blade or bar which is pulled behind a suitable tug or work-boat. The strategy can be utilized for direct dredging over quick distances and for levelling off the bed to the desired depth when a trailer or seize dredger is operating. It may also be used to drag away materials positioned near quay walls and different places where a trailer cannot attain into a more accessible area. Sometimes the trailer itself operates the leveller if no tug or work-boat is available.
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